B. Flores-Obanil and Mary Ann Manahan*

middle-income stature of the Philippines, under the Human Development
Index, offers no reprieve to hunger and poverty in the countryside.
With about 33 percent of Filipinos living below the poverty line, 3
out of 4 poor (75 percent) people are rural folk and majority are women. Characterized by disparity of income and
wealth, poverty, as reflected in rural realities, primarily means
inequitable access to and control of the land — the motivating force
for many of the country's revolution and revolts in the past

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