This publication provides a comprehensive analysis of the situation surrounding seeds–a central element of agricultural economy and of ecology. From being a commonly-held resource nurtured by farmers, corporate-driven scientific research, and intellectual property acquisitions have transformed seeds into a high value commodity out of reach by the common farmer. Global economic development programs and free trade agreements have driven national agriculture programs that imposed the use of commercial seed varieties that now dominate the modern agricultural economy. Extensive monoculture of hybrid or genetically modified crops has not only altered the agricultural economy and trade, but also resutled in severe and often irreprarable impact on the environment. To counter this trend, thousands of farmers have revived their efforts to save indigenous seed varieties, protect seed diversity as well as to preserve the heritage of seed sharing, exchange and conservation.